Perfusion by blood provides tissues with vital oxygen and nutrients, while removing waste products and distributing signaling molecules around the organism. The measurement of microvascular blood perfusion provides researchers with critical information in a number of research applications where blood supply has been disrupted.
Our blood flow monitors will be of interest therefore to life scientists wishing to directly and continuously measure local microvascular blood perfusion in in vivo models of ischemia-related disorders.
Our OxyFlo™ devices are laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) monitors intended for monitoring of relative microvascular blood flow in living tissues.
Most applications are concerned with monitoring the competence of regional (microvascular) blood supply in specialties such as:
Oxford Optronix Ltd. was founded when its current CEO pioneered the transition of the then nascent laser-Doppler flowmetry technology into a commercially viable product in the early 1990's. We remain a pioneer in the development of LDF technology and continue to set standards of reliability, robustness and sensitivity, with the OxyFlo™ brand now well-established the world over in biomedical ischaemia research.
In the OxyFlo™ Pro, our third-generation laser Doppler platform, we blend contemporary design, plug and play convenience and touch-screen operation to provide one of the most advanced and reliable blood flow monitors on the market.
Intended use statement:
OxyFlo™ and OxyFlo™ Pro are intended for laboratory, industrial and research use only.
|Number of channels|
(max number of sensors supported)
|1||2 (OxyFlo Pro)|
4 (OxyFlo Pro XL)
|Simultaneous blood perfusion and backscatter|
|Optional unfiltered (RAW) or|
artifact rejected (ART) blood flow outputs
|Analogue data outputs||Yes||Yes|
|USB digital data output||Yes||Yes|
|2 year product warranty||Yes||Yes|
|Upgradable (addition of channels)||No||Yes|
Our new-generation high performance laser Doppler blood flow monitors provide uncompromised reliability in continuous tissue blood flow assessment and are ideally suited to measurements of changing tissue blood flow in acute experimental models.
A range of probe types and probe formats provide support for a host of specialist disciplines and applications requiring both invasive or non-invasive tissue blood flow assessment.
Our multi-channel OxyFlo™ Pro monitors incorporate a proprietary artefact rejection technology, effectively filtering out the presence of motion artefacts in the blood flow signal. It substantially reduces and in most cases, completely eliminates motion artefacts or ‘spikes’ in the blood flow data arising from sensor cable movement and/or regular tissue movement (e.g. due to breathing).
OxyFlo™ probes require no calibration procedures or configuration following one-time probe calibration. Probes supplied at the time of monitor shipment are supplied factor pre-calibrated.
OxyFlo™ Pro models feature a touch-sensitive, high-contrast, 140º viewing-angle screen, which displays real-time data in both digital and graphical (trace) formats, and provides access to instrument/user settings.
The OxyFlo™ Pro is available as a 2-channel or as a 4-channel device (OxyFlo™ Pro XL) capable of driving up to 4 probes simultaneously, providing the flexibility to monitor blood flow from multiple tissue sites (e.g. comparison of pathological versus control tissue sites).
The OxyFlo™ Pro 2-channel model can be factory upgraded to a 4-channel OxyFlo Pro XL.
Our OxyFlo™ blood flow monitors can be used alongside our OxyLite™ oxygen monitors in a stack arrangement providing simultaneous tissue oxygen and blood flow measurements from unique 'triple' parameter combined sensors.
Our entire range of tissue monitoring devices include a dedicated USB output that supports direct streaming of real-time recordings to a PC running the popular LabChart® Pro* charting software by ADInstruments. After installing a complimentary add-on, LabChart will automatically identify the specific type and model of Oxford Optronix monitor and pre-load all the necessary configuration and channel settings, providing the ultimate in ‘plug and play’ convenience. For researchers wishing to make multi-parameter measurements, the add-on supports multiple Oxford Optronix devices at the same time. Data acquisition and recording just got a whole lot easier!
*LabChart version 8.0.4 or later required; PC/Windows only
Continuous data recording to PC or Mac platforms is supported via standard analogue data outputs offering compatibility with third party data recording solutions.
Our monitors are provided with a comprehensive 2-year manufacturer’s warranty, covering defects in material or in workmanship. Optional extended warranty packages including preventative maintenance servicing are also available for additional peace of mind.
A dedicated needle blood flow probe (product code 'MNP100NX-3/10'), immobilized over a pre-determined region of the skull via a stereotactic apparatus was used to non-invasively measure cerebral cortex blood flow in response to temporary MCA occlusion. The trace shows continuous blood flow in arbitrary 'blood perfusion units' (BPU) and its response to a period of occlusion, followed by release.
What physiological parameters does OxyFlo™ measure?
Our range of laser Doppler blood flow monitors are intended for the investigation of blood flow (also knows as blood perfusion or microvascular blood flow) in the microcirculation. The laser Doppler technique is well-established as the most convenient method for assessing tissue blood flow non-invasively and continuously. The technique allows continuous assessment of flow at one or more tissue sites via fibre-optic probes in contact with the tissue. The measurement of microvascular blood flow provides researchers with critical information in a number of research applications where blood supply has been disrupted (ischaemia). The technique is not intended for the measurement of blood flow rates in isolated blood vessels.
What makes the OxyFlo™ unique?
While substantially equivalent to other laser Doppler monitors on the market, our OxyFlo™ monitors offer a number of distinguishing key features. Most notable of these is their ability to operate in conjunction with our counterpart oxygen monitors for combined tissue oxygen, blood perfusion and temperature monitoring from a single sensor and therefore the same tissue micro-region. Furthermore, our multi-channel OxyFlo™ Pro models offer an industry-first touch-screen display and user interface as well as an advanced, intelligent signal noise suppression output (ART™).
What are the typical applications for your instruments?
Our instruments have proved popular in applications covering such disciplines as peripheral vascular disease, cerebral perfusion monitoring in models of stroke and brain injury, tumour perfusion monitoring / angiogenesis, blood flow in free flaps and pedicle flaps, wound healing, gastroenterology and more.
How do your blood perfusion instruments work?
Our blood perfusion monitors utilise the well-established method of laser-Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) to provide a continuous measure of tissue blood blow. LDF works by illuminating a small region of tissue under observation with low power laser light from a sensor containing optical fibre light guides. Laser light from one fibre is directed towards the tissue and is scattered within the tissue. Some of the scattered laser light is incident upon moving red blood cells within the tissue and this light becomes Doppler-frequency shifted as a result. A second optical fibre collects this backscattered, Doppler-shifted light from the tissue and returns it to the detector within the monitor. The photo-detected signal comprises a broad spectrum of Doppler frequency shifted signals generated as a result of the movement of red blood cells within the tissue. Microvascular blood flow is electronically calculated as the product of mean red blood cell velocity and mean red blood cell concentration in the volume of tissue under illumination from the sensor.
What are your blood flow probes made of and how large are they?
All our blood flow probes are constructed internally from glass or specialist plastic optical fibre light guides, terminating in needle, surface or other, specialist conformations designed to support the measurement of blood flow from almost any tissue. Probes are typically supplied in 3 m lengths and composed of specialist surgical steel, medical grade plastic and silicone materials. See here for a full list of available blood flow probe types.
Do your blood flow monitors support the use of multiple probes at the same time?
Yes, the OxyFlo™ Pro is a two-channel monitor, while the OxyFlo™ Pro XL is a four-channel monitor capable of simultaneously driving and reading from up to 4 blood flow probes simultaneously. This allows the simultaneous collection of physiological blood flow data from up to four separate tissue sites at the same time, which may for example be useful when comparing pathological versus control tissue sites (e.g. contralateral cerebral perfusion). The ability to monitor from more than one tissue site can also be useful in mitigating for natural site to site blood flow variability by allowing multi-site signal averaging.
Are your blood flow probes supplied sterile?
No. While we manufacture blood flow probes in a clean room environment, they are not supplied sterile. Our blood flow probes can however be disinfected using 70% IMS or ethanol, and can be sterilized using industry-standard liquid sterilizers (e.g. Cidex®) or the low-temperature ethylene oxide gas method. Note that neither our blood flow probes, nor our blood flow monitors possess CE or FDA regulatory approval for use in human subjects.
What is the sampling volume of your blood flow probes?
For most tissues the mean sampling depth is in the region of 0.5 – 1.5 mm with a typical sampling volume in the region of 1 mm3. These values could be higher in regions where reduced photon absorption would be expected due to depleted erythrocyte concentration. These values have been obtained heuristically through many years of experience and are based on both in vitro observations and mathematical modelling of photon diffusion through ‘imaginary tissues’ using Monte-Carlo techniques.
What are the units of blood flow measurement?
The laser-Doppler technique for tissue blood flow measurement provides arbitrary, non-absolute, units for blood perfusion since the actual sampling volume/depth can only be determined by identifying which erythrocytes have interacted with the light remitted from the tissue, which in turn, is principally dependant on two parameters; namely the optical scattering and the optical absorption coefficients of the tissue under observation. Since both of these coefficients are entirely dependent on the site of observation and perfusion of the microvasculature at the time of measurement, it is impossible to determine the actual sampling volume at any tissue site and thus to express the measured component in absolute terms. The strengths of the laser-Doppler technique lie in observing continuous and quantifiable changes relative to baseline (control) measurements.
Do your tissue blood flow monitors possess regulatory approval for clinical use?
No. At this time our blood flow monitors and probes do NOT possess CE or FDA regulatory approvals for use on human subjects.
Do you offer on-site demonstrations of your instruments?
Yes, depending on geographical location we will try to arrange for an on-site demonstration of our products by an experienced product specialist. Ideally this will involve a full simulation of your application in order to maximise the benefit of the demonstration. On-site demonstrations are usually free of charge and can typically be arranged at 2 – 8 weeks notice. Alternatively we can also arrange for a limited free trial of our monitors and sensors.
“We have used OxyFlo probes for animal tumour studies and found them a great addition to the range of techniques that we use for studying the tumour microenvironment. The Oxford Optronix team is always extremely helpful, providing knowledgeable and thoughtful advice on every occasion. We will certainly carry on using them.”
Dr Gillian Tozer, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, UK
|Dimensions||OxyFlo: 95mm (H) x 290mm (W) x 260mm (D);
OxyFlo Pro: 150mm (H) x 310mm (W) x 280mm (D)
|Weight||OxyFlo: 2kg (4.5lbs);
OxyFlo Pro: 4kg (9lbs)
|Operating temperature||10 – 30°C|
|Operating humidity||0 – 70% (non-condensing)|
|Power requirements||OxyFlo: VAC 100-240V, 50-60Hz, 30W max;
OxyFlo Pro: External PSU (100-240V / 47-63 Hz), 40W max
|Fuse rating (applies to OxyFlo only)||2 x T1.6A|
|Number of probes supported||OxyFlo: 1 / OxyFlo Pro: 2 / OxyFlo Pro XL: 4|
|Display||OxyFlo: 40 character alphanumeric OLED;
OxyFlo Pro: High contrast 800 x 480 pixel LCD touch-screen
|Instrument configuration||OxyFlo: Via function button at rear;
OxyFlo Pro: Via touch-screen display
|Analogue voltage outputs||OxyFlo: 2 x male BNC connectors (2 outputs);
OxyFlo Pro: 1 x 15-pin D-type (4 outputs);
OxyFlo Pro XL: 2 x 15-pin D-type (8 outputs)
|Laser type||Temperature-stabilized semi-conductor laser diode|
|Laser wavelength||785 ±10nm|
|Laser classification||Class 1 (EN 60825-1:1994, 21 CFR 1040.10 and 1040.11)|
|Laser power||<0.5mW from probe tip/underside|
|Digital output||USB type B interface for data recording to LabChart software (PC only)|
|Analogue output||OxyFlo: 2 x BNC connectors for data recording (0-5V);
OxyFlo Pro: 15-pin D-connector interface for data recording via BNC adapter cable (0-5V)
|Mode of operation||Laser Doppler flowmetry|
|Measurement units (displayed)||0 – 9999 BPU (blood perfusion units)|
|Stability of reading||± 5%|
|Measurement averaging||OxyFlo: 200ms (Flow); 200ms (Backscatter), rolling;
OxyFlo Pro: 200ms (Flow); 5ms (Raw); 5s (ART); 200ms (Backscatter), rolling
|Display update interval (numerical)||2s (5s rolling averaged)|
|Probe identification||Automatic; monitor stores one-time calibration|
|Probe calibration||Factory or user-calibrated using Oxford Optronix motility standard|
|Default analogue data output range||0 – 5V (= 0 – 5000 BPU or 0 – 100% Backscatter)|
|Analogue data output rate||65Hz|
Our OxyFlo™ and OxyFlo™ Pro blood flow monitors are employed the world over and have been cited widely across many research applications.
Daneva Z, Dempsey SK, Ahmad A, Li N, Li P-1L and Ritter JK (2019). Diuretic, natriuretic, and vasodepressor activity of a lipid fraction enhanced in medium of cultured mouse medullary interstitial cells by a selective FAAH inhibitor. JPET Fast Forward DOI: 10.1124/jpet.118.252320
Ganesh T, Zakher , Estrada M and Cheng HM (2019). Assessment of microvascular dysfunction in acute limb ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Magn Reson Imaging 49(4), 1174-118
McBride DW Reis C, Zhang JH, Applegate R 2nd and Tang J (2018). Remote Limb Ischemic Preconditioning Attenuates Cerebrovascular Depression During Sinusoidal Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation via α1-Adrenoceptor-Protein Kinase Cε-Endothelial NO Synthase Pathway in Rats. J Am Heart Assoc:7(7). pii: e007105
McBride DW, Wu G, Nowrangi D, Flores JJ, Hui L, Krafft PR and Zhang JH (2018). Delayed Recanalization Promotes Functional Recovery in Rats Following Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion. Transl Stroke Res 9(2), 185-198
Nakamura S, Walker DW and Wong FY (2017). Cerebral haemodynamic response to somatosensory stimulation in near-term fetal sheep. J Physiol 595(4), 1289-1303Shepherd J, Fisher M, Welford A, McDonald DM, Kanthou C and Tozer GM (2017). The protective role of sphingosine-1-phosphate against the action of the vascular disrupting agent combretastatin A-4 3-O-phosphate. Oncotarget 8(56), 95648-95661
LabChart® Pro acquisition software (PC/Windows® only), incl. 1 user license, 5 yrs…
12-input analogue data acquisition module
Calibration kit for LDF probes and MSFD NX adapter
Double-sided adhesive rings for surface LDF probes.
Miniature holders (10 mm diam.) for MNP100NX and MNP100NX-3/10 probes. Pack of 5
A range of fibre-optic based probes is available to support a diverse range of blood flow monitoring applications, including surface probes for (non-invasive) skin and tissue surface measurements, or needle type probes for direct (invasive) measurements from deeper tissue regions.
Reusable probes are supplied in a dedicated protective case for safe storage.
Standard probe for blood flow from tissue surfaces
Digit probe for blood flow from rounded surfaces
Miniature probe for blood flow from tissue surfaces (suturable)
Miniature probe for blood flow from tissue surfaces (non-suturable)
Standard needle blood flow probe
Standard needle blood flow probe for MCAO
Fine needle blood flow probe
Bent-tip needle blood flow probe
Single-fibre implantable blood flow probe
Bare-fibre type blood flow probe
Intended use statement:
OxyFlo™ and OxyFlo™ Pro are intended for laboratory, industrial and research use only.
2 or 4‑channel dissolved oxygen (pO2) and temperature monitors with touch-screenOxyLite™ Pro